What Is the Functionality of Common Components on PCB?

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are critical components in electronic devices, providing a platform for connecting and supporting various electronic components. Common components on a PCB serve different functions and can be broadly categorized into active and passive components. Here’s an overview of the functionality of some common components:

1, Active Components:


Functionality: The brain of the electronic system, it processes data and controls the operation of the device.

Integrated Circuits (ICs):

Functionality: ICs can include amplifiers, voltage regulators, timers, and other complex circuits. They perform a wide range of functions based on their design.


Functionality: Act as electronic switches or signal amplifiers, controlling the flow of current in a circuit.


Functionality: Allow current to flow in one direction only, used for rectification, voltage regulation, and signal demodulation.

2, Passive Components:


Functionality: Limit or control the flow of electric current. They are often used for voltage division, current limiting, and biasing.


Functionality: Store and release electrical energy. They are used for smoothing voltage, filtering signals, and providing timing elements in circuits.


Functionality: Store energy in a magnetic field when current flows through them. They are used in filters, transformers, and energy storage applications.


Functionality: Provide physical connections for other components and external devices. Examples include USB ports, audio jacks, and headers.


Functionality: Provide accurate timing references for microcontrollers and other time-sensitive components.

LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes):

Functionality: Emit light when current flows through them. Used for indication, display, and lighting purposes.


Functionality: Control the flow of current in a circuit. Can be simple mechanical switches or electronic switches like transistors.


Functionality: Protect the circuit by breaking the electrical connection in case of overcurrent, preventing damage to components.


Functionality: Transfer electrical energy between different voltage levels. Commonly used in power supplies.

Printed Conductive Traces:

Functionality: Provide paths for electric current to flow between components on the PCB.

In summary, the various components on a circuit board have their specific roles, work in conjunction with each other, and collectively achieve the functionality and objectives of the circuit. Understanding the functions of these components allows for a better grasp of the working principles of circuit boards, providing reference and guidance for the design and maintenance of electronic products.

However, for some reasons, inspect the components before PCB assembly is the main method that ensures the reliability of a PCBA. In our next post, we will share how to make the incoming inspection for electronic components, leave your messages if you are interested in it.