PCBA Board Manufacturing Steps / PCB Assembly Process

PCBA is the abbreviation of PCB Assembly, PCBA board refers to the complete circuit board when all components and connectors are soldered. Traditionally manual processes (hand soldered) were used to develop PCB Assemblies. In modern days this process is automated due to low-pitched ICs, small components footprints and dense circuits. As the speed of iterative updating of electronic products becomes faster, traditional electronic manufacturing companies integrating industry and trade cannot keep up with such a rhythm, making turnkey PCBA assembly companies more important. In this article, Fubon Precision will show you in detail how our assembly factory performs the assembly process.

Design and Layout: Engineers design the circuit schematic and layout using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. The layout defines the arrangement of components and traces on the PCB.

Manufacturing Data Preparation: The layout data is converted into Gerber files, which contain information about the PCB layers, traces, pads, and other design elements. These files guide the manufacturing machines.

Material Procurement: Necessary materials such as the bare PCBs, electronic components, solder paste, and flux are procured. Components may be sourced from various suppliers.

PCB Fabrication: The bare PCBs are manufactured through a process that involves printing the circuit pattern onto the board, etching away unwanted copper, and applying layers of insulation and solder mask.

Solder Paste Application: Solder paste, a mixture of solder and flux, is applied to the PCB using a stencil. The paste is deposited onto the pads where components will be soldered.

Component Placement: Automated machines (pick-and-place machines) accurately position surface-mount components (SMD) onto the solder paste. Through-hole components may also be inserted manually or with automated equipment.

Reflow Soldering: The PCB is heated in a reflow oven, causing the solder paste to melt and create a connection between the components and the pads. This process bonds the components to the PCB.

Inspection: Automated optical inspection (AOI) systems or human inspectors check for defects, misaligned components, soldering issues, and other assembly errors. Any faulty boards are identified for rework.

Rework and Repair: Faulty components or solder connections are reworked or replaced. This can involve desoldering and resoldering components as needed.

Testing: Functional testing may be performed to ensure that the assembled PCBs meet the required specifications. This can include testing individual components, as well as the entire circuit.

Cleaning: The PCB is cleaned to remove any residual flux or contaminants left from the soldering process. Cleaning ensures the board’s reliability and longevity.

Final Inspection: A final inspection is carried out to verify that all components are correctly placed, soldered, and functional. Quality control measures are critical at this stage.

Packaging and Shipping: Once the PCBA passes all inspections and tests, it is packaged appropriately and prepared for shipping to its destination.

Fubon Precision PCBA Assembly Services

 Fubon Precision is serving the PCBA industry since 13 years by providing cost effective solutions for low to high volume demands. Being equipped with state of the art production and inspection equipment and trained professionals for the above steps, Fubon Precision is emerging as global partner for technology innovators. Fubon Precision project management exposure with international partners ensures smooth flow of the projects. Meeting high quality standards and on time completion of projects distinguishes Fubon Precision among other competitors.